Extensive field surveys across the Western Ghats and detailed genetic analyses have yielded two new genera and new species of lizards from the genus Agamidae, commonly called dragon lizards.Species from one of the new genera, Monilesaurus, sport a distinct neck fold that looks like a necklace, giving the name (Monile is Latin for necklace, and Sauros is Greek for lizard).Two new species have been added to this genus: Monilesaurus montanus from the montane forests of Kudremukh and Coorg, and Monilesaurus acanthocephalus from the upper elevations of the Meghamalai hills.The second new genus, Microauris, describes an enigmatic species Microauris aurantolabium, which the authors describe as a ‘ghost among Indian lizards’. The Western Ghats have revealed two new genera of dragon lizards from the family Agamidae — Monilesauras and Microauris. Using a combination of extensive field surveys, detailed taxonomic analyses and genetic tools, researchers have rearranged British-era taxonomy to expand extant knowledge of this diverse group of lizards. Over five years, a motley (and many times wet) bunch of field biologists from the Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, trudged through the wet massifs and lowlands of the Western Ghats, one of the most biodiverse areas in the world. Even after numerous forays into hitherto unexplored areas, funded by the Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund (CEPF), lead researcher of the lizard team Saunak Pal has this to say: “We need to make more trips into the Ghats. This is just the beginning.” The CEPF project had an ambitious objective: mapping the diversity and distribution of frogs, snakes and lizards in the Western Ghats. With the project drawing to a close, a series of publications documenting the hyperdiverse biodiversity is underway. A recent publication from the project describes two new lizard genera Monilesaurus and Microauris. Further, two new species Monilesaurus acanthocephalus and Monilesaurus montanus have been identified under the Monilesauras genus. Additionally, Microauris aurantolabium, a previously wrongly identified species, has also been reclassified. Monilesaurus montanus is one of the two new species of lizards discovered in the Western Ghats recently. Monile is Latin for necklace and Sauros is Greek for lizard. The species is restricted to montane shola forests, prompting the species name ‘montanus’. Photo by Saunak Pal. All the species described in this article were initially thought to belong to one genus: Calotes, the genus that contains the common garden lizard Calotes versicolor. You may have spotted these in your garden: scaly creatures of changeable colour sporting spines down their back and a very long tail, that love to eat insects of all kinds. There are 23 species in the genus Calotes, distributed in south and Southeast Asia. The Western Ghats has four, of which two (C. calotes and C. versicolor) are widespread. The other two (C. grandisquamis and C. nemoricola) are endemic – found only in the Ghats and nowhere else in the world. Calotes nemoricola is endemic to the Western Ghats. It is one of the four species of lizards found in the Ghats belonging to the genus Calotes. Photo by Saunak Pal. Calotes grandisquamis is endemic to the Western Ghats, restricted to high elevation (above 1000 m), primary evergreen forests and montane shola forests of southern Western Ghats and central Western Ghats south of Brahmagiri hills. This gorgeous green agamid can grow up to 136 mm from nose to vent (excluding the tail), is active during the day and lives up in the trees, sometimes choosing a lower branch for sleeping at night.