Shweta Hule leads the ‘Swamini’ self-help group, a group of ten individuals. They are involved in mangrove tours and other income-generating activities in Sindhudurg’s Mandavi creek. The sustainable livelihoods have enabled conservation of the rich wetland. Illustration by Pearl D’Souza.

Konkan’s Kaandal and its community champions

With a total of 320 sq km spread across the coastal belt of the state, Maharashtra has the fifth largest mangrove cover among Indian states, as per the State of Forest Report, 2019. Although the Sindhudurg district occupies only 12.19 sq km of that expanse, it is one of the richest in terms of biodiversity, and also houses the only recorded case of the Sundari tree (Heritiera littoralis) in Maharashtra.

Maharashtra is also one of the only states that has a dedicated cell for mangrove conservation in the country. The Mangrove Cell of Maharashtra Forest Department, set up in 2012, has witnessed an increase of 134 sq km in the mangrove cover since its inception (from 186 sq km in 2011 to 320 in 2019, accounting for over 38 percent of the total increase in cover in the country). Recently, on September 22, 2020, Maharashtra also became the only state to declare a state mangrove tree speciesSonneratia alba – to raise awareness and dedicated efforts for protecting the ecologically important mangroves.

The Mangrove Cell through programmes such as the UNDP-GEF project has also helped promote alternative livelihood options such as mangrove crab farming, oyster farming and mangrove ecotourism. N. Vasudevan, the principal chief conservator of forests (Forest Development Corporation of Maharashtra) told Mongabay-India that the objective of such activities was to create an ecological as well as economic incentive for local communities to conserve mangroves. Vasudevan was the additional principal chief conservator of forests for the Mangrove Cell and the nodal officer for the UNDP-GEF Project when the Swamini Group had put forth their proposal to the Cell for running an ecotourism activity in the Mandavi creek.

Vengurla taluka in Sindhudurg, the southernmost district in Maharashtra, where the Swamini group operates. The district covers only 3.8 percent of the total mangrove vegetation in the state. Map by Datawrapper and photo by Shweta Hule.
Vengurla taluka in Sindhudurg, the southernmost district in Maharashtra, where the Swamini group operates. The district covers only 3.8 percent of the total mangrove vegetation in the state. Map by Datawrapper and photo by Shweta Hule.

However, it would be unfair to say that the Swamini Group has seen the mangrove safari activity solely as a means of revenue generation, clarified Vasudevan. Sai Satardekar, another member of the Swamini Self Help Group echoed this sentiment as she told Mongabay-India, “One of the biggest joys of being a part of this project is the satisfaction that comes from knowing that by protecting mangroves and by making more people aware about its importance, we are helping protect this boon given to us by nature; protecting it for our children and coming generations.” Having realised the importance of mangroves during their training period with the Cell, the group had put forth a proposal to establish a mangrove nursery, where they could care for saplings and help restore degraded areas. However, despite repeated efforts the group was unable to find a suitable plot of land for setting up the nursery and were forced to shelve it.

“It was disappointing. But we are determined to make this an ecotourism hub,” said Shweta Hule. Over the years, the group have indulged in activities such as setting up an organic farm where they grow vegetables and herbs. The organic produce from this farm is often used in the open-air restaurant that they have set up, which serves local cuisine. Shweta and her husband have also started an eco-stay Bed and Breakfast, built entirely of eco-friendly materials, and which can be disassembled at short notice.

The Swamini model for conservation and women’s economic empowerment

“One of the factors for the Swamini Group’s success is certainly the grit of the group,” said Dhanasree Patil, who heads the Department of Botany at Br. Balasaheb Khardekar College in Vengurla and is a member of the Wetland Committee in Sindhudurg. The Swamini Group has not just successfully demonstrated a model of mangrove ecotourism but in doing so they have also encouraged other groups of women to adopt similar ecotourism ventures. Women groups from Achara and other neighbouring villages and talukas have travelled to Mandavi Creek to take lessons from the Swamini Group.

The Swamini Group has also made the conversation about mangrove conservation more local, shared Patil. “The popularity of mangroves as a topic for discussion has certainly grown since Swamini Group started their activity. From stories in the local media, to the Rotary club printing pamphlets that talk about the importance of mangroves, there’s all that and more happening,” she narrated, on the success of this activity as an effort towards community-led mangrove conservation.

In September this year, the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change had recommended that dedicated units for mangrove conservation should be established in all states. Appreciating this recommendation, N. Vasudevan shared that while this helps bring dedicated attention towards coastal biodiversity issues, the states must also draw lessons from groups such as Swamini.

“In our patriarchal society, where a woman’s contribution to a family is often unrecognised as it cannot be measured in monetary values, women-run ecotourism activities such as the Swamini mangrove safari serves many purposes. From a conservation standpoint, these women end up becoming community champions protecting the mangroves which are now a source of livelihood for them, and it also helps in increasing the tourism value of mangrove ecosystems. In addition, from a social impact standpoint, as the women are now able to bring tangible economic contributions to the family, they become empowered and more involved in the family’s decision-making processes,” said N. Vasudevan, advocating for why such community interventions should focus on bringing more women to its fold.

Members of the Swamini Group share a laugh as they recollect their early struggles with learning how to row a boat. Photo by Alisha Vasudev for UNDP-GEF Sindhudurg Project.

“I certainly feel that more women should come forward to take up similar projects. There may be some people who don’t think that women can undertake such projects. But the joy that comes from proving them wrong and making a small contribution towards protecting the natural wealth that has been given to us, is unparalleled,” said Swamini-member, Sai Satardekar.

The story of how the Swamini group went from being just a group of friends with an idea to the paragons of mangrove conservation in the community is certainly an inspiring and exemplary one. Shweta Hule shared that there are times when local people approach her in the market where she sells fish, to strike up a conversation about mangroves.

“It feels great to be recognised for this and to have people enjoy being a part of such an activity, especially considering that initially there were a lot of people who thought this idea wouldn’t work. ‘How will women row boats?’ they would ask,” recounts Hule. Now they know.


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Illustration by Pearl D’Souza, an illustrator and visual artist from Goa. Her work reflects her passion for mental health, gender, feminism, body positivity and social good. Pearl is a proud plant mom, and is often found drawing botanicals in her journals.

Article published by Aditi
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